Handbook for Interpreters - Ohlone College Interpreting and Accommodation Services
- Professional Conduct
- Ohlone College Campus Map
- Important Numbers to Know
- Appendix A: Hourly Pay for Sign Language Interpreters
Ohlone College has been serving the community since September 1967. In 1972, the College reached out and welcomed deaf persons to participate in college activities as students and members of the college faculty. This decision made Ohlone College a pioneer among the community colleges that now serve deaf students.
The average deaf enrollment is approximately 200 students. Deaf students at Ohlone College are diverse in cultural and educational backgrounds. They come from out-of-state and many foreign countries. They participate in student government, sports, drama and all phases of campus affairs. Students enroll in a variety of programs and courses that may lead to professional or occupational careers or enrichment experience.
The Ohlone College Center for Deaf Studies is one of the largest and most comprehensive programs in California designed to meet the academic and vocational needs of deaf students. The staff includes several full-time deaf instructors and many part-time deaf instructors and is lead by one of the few deaf administrators in the state of California.
As a result of the success of the Deaf Program, the Interpreter Preparation Program was established in 1977. Ohlone College offers a two-year Associate in Arts degree in Interpreter Education; the only AA program in Northern California. Upon completion of the program, many graduates remain here at Ohlone College to start their profession as Sign Language Interpreters.
The growing awareness and recognition of the Deaf Community as a cultural and linguistic minority has resulted in a surge in the general public’s desire to communicate with deaf people. Sign Language is one of the most used languages in the United States, other than English. Since 1982, Ohlone College has been offering a two-year Associate in Arts degree in Sign Language Studies.
Ohlone College Sign Language Interpreters, Real-time Captioners, and Notetakers represent an important service here The Interpreting and Accommodation Services employees provide services as needed to convey the instructors’ presentation of course material and to facilitate communication between the deaf student and his/her classmates. Interpreters’ and Real-time Captioners’ skills are also utilized for conferences between deaf students and hearing instructors and to facilitate communication when students seek services on campus.
The guidelines set forth in this handbook are meant to clarify the role and responsibilities of an Educational Interpreter employed by Ohlone College . The Interpreter’s primary function is to facilitate communication between the students, staff and faculty of Ohlone College. This handbook also outlines the policies and procedures for Interpreters employed by Ohlone. It is every Interpreter’s responsibility to be familiar with these guidelines and follow them.
Sign Language Interpreters report to the Interpreting and Accommodation Services office. The office is located in Rooms 5309 & 5315 and is open Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. All Interpreters, Captioners, and Notetakers have a mailbox near the office. All Interpreting and Accommodation Services employees are expected to check their boxes regularly during their workday.
The Interpreting and Accommodation Services Office is always open during the day to relax between classes and break times. The Office has a hot wax machine for use before classes to warm up. There are also ice packs for use after classes to cool down. Computers and telephones are available for checking emails and voicemail messages. There is also a Staff Lounge that can be used as an alternate break room (Room 1201).
As it is necessary to have a framework for judging appropriate conduct, Ohlone College Interpreting and Accommodation Services has adopted the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. (RID) Code of Professional Conduct. Interpreters are responsible for knowing and adhering to the Code of Professional Conduct. We ask that the Captioners also adhere to these guidelines. Designed to protect both the interpreter/captioner and the deaf student, these principles are invaluable to our profession. The full Code of Professional Conduct is printed here for your convenience.
National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. (RID)
Code of Professional Conduct
The National Association of the Deaf (NAD) and the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. (RID) uphold high standards of professionalism and ethical conduct for interpreters. Embodied in this Code of Professional Conduct (formerly known as the Code of Ethics) are seven tenets setting forth guiding principles, followed by illustrative behaviors.
The tenets of this Code of Professional Conduct are to be viewed holistically and as a guide to professional behavior. This document provides assistance in complying with the code. The guiding principles offer the basis upon which the tenets are articulated. The illustrative behaviors are not exhaustive, but are indicative of the conduct that may either conform to or violate a specific tenet or the code as a whole.
When in doubt, the reader should refer to the explicit language of the tenet. If further clarification is needed, questions may be directed to the national office of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc.
This Code of Professional Conduct is sufficient to encompass interpreter roles and responsibilities in every type of situation (e.g., educational, legal, medical). A separate code for each area of interpreting is neither necessary nor advisable.
The American Deaf community represents a cultural and linguistic group having the inalienable right to full and equal communication and to participation in all aspects of society. Members of the American Deaf community have the right to informed choice and the highest quality interpreting services.
Recognition of the communication rights of America ’s women, men, and children who are deaf is the foundation of the tenets, principles, and behaviors set forth in this Code of Professional Conduct.
Adoption of this Code of Professional Conduct
Interpreters who are members in good standing with the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc. and the National Association of the Deaf voted to adopt this Code of Professional Conduct, effective July 1, 2005 . This Code of Professional Conduct is a working document that is expected to change over time. The aforementioned members may be called upon to vote, as may be needed from time to time, on the tenets of the code.
The guiding principles and the illustrative behaviors may change periodically to meet the needs and requirements of the RID Ethical Practices System. These sections of the Code of Professional Conduct will not require a vote of the members. However, members are encouraged to recommend changes for future updates.
Function of the Guiding Principles
It is the obligation of every interpreter to exercise judgment, employ critical thinking, apply the benefits of practical experience, and reflect on past actions in the practice of their profession. The guiding principles in this document represent the concepts of confidentiality, linguistic and professional competence, impartiality, professional growth and development, ethical business practices, and the rights of participants in interpreted situations to informed choice. The driving force behind the guiding principles is the notion that the interpreter will do no harm.
When applying these principles to their conduct, interpreters remember that their choices are governed by a “reasonable interpreter” standard. This standard represents the hypothetical interpreter who is appropriately educated, informed, capable, aware of professional standards, and fair-minded.
Code of Professional Conduct
© Copyright 2005 the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.
- Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication.
- Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
- Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
- Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers.
- Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns, and students of the profession.
- Interpreters maintain ethical business practices.
- Interpreters engage in professional development.
- This Code of Professional Conduct applies to certified and associate members of the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, Inc., Certified members of the National Association of the Deaf, interns, and students of the profession.
- Federal, state or other statutes or regulations may supersede this Code of Professional Conduct. When there is a conflict between this code and local, state, or federal laws and regulations, the interpreter obeys the rule of law.
- This Code of Professional Conduct applies to interpreted situations that are performed either face-to-face or remotely.
For the purpose of this document, the following terms are used:
- Other interpreters.
- Conflict of Interest
- A conflict between the private interests (personal, financial, or professional) and the official or professional responsibilities of an interpreter in a position of trust, whether actual or perceived, deriving from a specific interpreting situation.
- Individuals and entities who are part of the interpreted situation. This includes individuals who are deaf, deaf-blind, hard of hearing, and hearing.
Tenet: Interpreters adhere to standards of confidential communication.
Guiding Principle: Interpreters hold a position of trust in their role as linguistic and cultural facilitators of communication. Confidentiality is highly valued by consumers and is essential to protecting all involved.
Each interpreting situation (e.g., elementary, secondary, and post-secondary education, legal, medical, mental health) has a standard of confidentiality. Under the reasonable interpreter standard, professional interpreters are expected to know the general requirements and applicability of various levels of confidentiality. Exceptions to confidentiality include, for example, federal and state laws requiring mandatory reporting of abuse or threats of suicide, or responding to subpoenas.
Illustrative Behavior - Interpreters:
1.1 Share assignment-related information only on a confidential and “as-needed” basis (e.g., supervisors, interpreter team members, members of the educational team, hiring entities).
1.2 Manage data, invoices, records, or other situational or consumer-specific information in a manner consistent with maintaining consumer confidentiality (e.g., shredding, locked files).
1.3 Inform consumers when federal or state mandates require disclosure of confidential information.
Tenet: Interpreters possess the professional skills and knowledge required for the specific interpreting situation.
Guiding Principle: Interpreters are expected to stay abreast of evolving language use and trends in the profession of interpreting as well as in the American Deaf community.
Interpreters accept assignments using discretion with regard to skill, communication mode, setting, and consumer needs. Interpreters possess knowledge of American Deaf culture and deafness-related resources.
Illustrative Behavior - Interpreters:
2.1 Provide service delivery regardless of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age, disability, sexual orientation, or any other factor.
2.2 Assess consumer needs and the interpreting situation before and during the assignment and make adjustments as needed.
2.3 Render the message faithfully by conveying the content and spirit of what is being communicated, using language most readily understood by consumers, and correcting errors discreetly and expeditiously.
2.4 Request support (e.g., certified deaf interpreters, team members, language facilitators) when needed to fully convey the message or to address exceptional communication challenges (e.g. cognitive disabilities, foreign sign language, emerging language ability, or lack of formal instruction or language).
2.5 Refrain from providing counsel, advice, or personal opinions.
2.6 Judiciously provide information or referral regarding available interpreting or community resources without infringing upon consumers’ rights.
Tenet: Interpreters conduct themselves in a manner appropriate to the specific interpreting situation.
Guiding Principle: Interpreters are expected to present themselves appropriately in demeanor and appearance. They avoid situations that result in conflicting roles or perceived or actual conflicts of interest.
Illustrative Behavior - Interpreters:
3.1 Consult with appropriate persons regarding the interpreting situation to determine issues such as placement and adaptations necessary to interpret effectively.
3.2 Decline assignments or withdraw from the interpreting profession when not competent due to physical, mental, or emotional factors.
3.3 Avoid performing dual or conflicting roles in interdisciplinary (e.g. educational or mental health teams) or other settings.
3.4 Comply with established workplace codes of conduct, notify appropriate personnel if there is a conflict with this Code of Professional Conduct, and actively seek resolution where warranted.
3.5 Conduct and present themselves in an unobtrusive manner and exercise care in choice of attire.
3.6 Refrain from the use of mind-altering substances before or during the performance of duties.
3.7 Disclose to parties involved any actual or perceived conflicts of interest.
3.8 Avoid actual or perceived conflicts of interest that might cause harm or interfere with the effectiveness of interpreting services.
3.9 Refrain from using confidential interpreted information for personal, monetary, or professional gain.
3.10 Refrain from using confidential interpreted information for the benefit of personal or professional affiliations or entities.
4.0 RESPECT FOR CONSUMERS
Tenet: Interpreters demonstrate respect for consumers.
Guiding Principle: Interpreters are expected to honor consumer preferences in selection of interpreters and interpreting dynamics, while recognizing the realities of qualifications, availability, and situation.
Illustrative Behavior - Interpreters:
4.1 Consider consumer requests or needs regarding language preferences, and render the message accordingly (interpreted or transliterated).
4.2 Approach consumers with a professional demeanor at all times.
4.3 Obtain the consent of consumers before bringing an intern to an assignment.
4.4 Facilitate communication access and equality, and support the full interaction and independence of consumers.
5.0 RESPECT FOR COLLEAGUES
Tenet: Interpreters demonstrate respect for colleagues, interns and students of the profession.
Guiding Principle: Interpreters are expected to collaborate with colleagues to foster the delivery of effective interpreting services. They also understand that the manner in which they relate to colleagues reflects upon the profession in general.
Illustrative Behavior - Interpreters:
5.1 Maintain civility toward colleagues, interns, and students.
5.2 Work cooperatively with team members through consultation before assignments regarding logistics, providing professional and courteous assistance when asked and monitoring the accuracy of the message while functioning in the role of the support interpreter.
5.3 Approach colleagues privately to discuss and resolve breaches of ethical or professional conduct through standard conflict resolution methods; file a formal grievance only after such attempts have been unsuccessful or the breaches are harmful or habitual.
5.4 Assist and encourage colleagues by sharing information and serving as mentors when appropriate.
5.5 Obtain the consent of colleagues before bringing an intern to an assignment.
6.0 BUSINESS PRACTICES
Tenet: Interpreters maintain ethical business practices.
Guiding Principle: Interpreters are expected to conduct their business in a professional manner whether in private practice or in the employ of an agency or other entity. Professional interpreters are entitled to a living wage based on their qualifications and expertise. Interpreters are also entitled to working conditions conducive to effective service delivery.
Illustrative Behavior - Interpreters:
6.1 Accurately represent qualifications, such as certification, educational background, and experience, and provide documentation when requested.
6.2 Honor professional commitments and terminate assignments only when fair and justifiable grounds exist.
6.3 Promote conditions that are conducive to effective communication, inform the parties involved if such conditions do not exist, and seek appropriate remedies.
6.4 Inform appropriate parties in a timely manner when delayed or unable to fulfill assignments.
6.5 Reserve the option to decline or discontinue assignments if working conditions are not safe, healthy, or conducive to interpreting.
6.6 Refrain from harassment or coercion before, during, or after the provision of interpreting services.
6.7 Render pro bono services in a fair and reasonable manner.
6.8 Charge fair and reasonable fees for the performance of interpreting services and arrange for payment in a professional and judicious manner.
7.0 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Tenet: Interpreters engage in professional development.
Guiding Principle: Interpreters are expected to foster and maintain interpreting competence and the stature of the profession through ongoing development of knowledge and skills.
Illustrative Behavior - Interpreters:
7.1 Increase knowledge and strengthen skills through activities such as:
- pursuing higher education;
- attending workshops and conferences;
- seeking mentoring and supervision opportunities;
- participating in community events; and
- engaging in independent studies.
7.2 Keep abreast of laws, policies, rules, and regulations that affect the profession.
Assignment to Classes
Assignments to classes are made before the first day of classes each semester and are subject to change. It is the responsibility of the Interpreting and Accommodation Services Director to assess the skills of the prospective Sign Language Interpreter. Based on this assessment, the following is considered when assigning employees to each class:
- The interpreter’s skills, availability, background
- The student’s preferred communication mode and background
- Difficulty and/or length of the class
- Student and/or interpreter personal preference
When scheduling, the goal is to match the Interpreter with the needs of the deaf student, teacher, and the subject. If at any time the Interpreter believes a mismatch has occurred, he/she is to report to the Director.
The Director must approve all substitute requests. Return a completed “Substitute Request Form” to the Director at least 10 business days in advance of the date needed.
In case of an emergency or illness, contact the Interpreting and Accommodation Services Office at (510) 659-6271.
NOTE: EXCESSIVE SUBSTITUTE REQUESTS MAY RESULT IN REASSIGNMENT AND/OR REDUCTION IN THE NUMBER OF HOURS ASSIGNED.
A memo will be sent out to announce the dates of when time sheets will be due for the semester. Due to holidays and other special circumstances, sometimes the dates vary. Completed time sheets will be due to the Director no later than the date specified on the memo. Any time sheet received after the specified date, the Sign Language Interpreter will not receive their check until the following pay period.
Employees are paid on the 15 th of the month. Arrangements can be made for personal pick-up, direct deposit or direct mail in the Human Resources Office. Paychecks that are picked up in person are issued at the Payroll Office (second floor of Building One) between 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. If you are unable to pick up a paycheck during that time, the checks will be mailed out to the address on file.
Hourly rates are based on experience, training, and certification. (See Appendix A)
All Interpreters, Captioners, and Notetakers have a mailbox near the office. Interpreting and Accommodation Services feels that communication is important and the mailboxes are great way to insure that everyone is aware of any changes that might effect their day. Notes and announcements from the supervisor, students, or other employees may be left in the mailboxes. Therefore, all Interpreting and Accommodation Services employees are expected to check their boxes regularly during their workday.
Subbing for Other Interpreters
In addition to regularly assigned classes, an Interpreter may be called to fill in for a co-worker who is unable to cover a particular assignment.
Any additional class-related service needs other than the regularly scheduled class (i.e. field trips, conferences, special events, etc.) should be discussed with the Director. A Request Form must be filled out before an assignment will be approved. The Interpreter, if requested by the student or instructor, should not go on the assignment if a formal request has not been made in the appropriate manner, or without the Director’s knowledge and approval. Assignments that do not have prior approval for the Interpreting and Accommodation Services Office will not be paid.
From time to time, interpreting requests are received for people outside Ohlone College . The Interpreting and Accommodation Services Office will post any requests that come in for your convenience. If you accept any job from a Community Request, it is your responsibility to make all arrangements with the contact person, including payment.
For professional growth, Sign Language Interpreters are strongly encouraged to join professional organizations, and get involved in issues significant to the emerging field of interpreting. Interpreters are encouraged to attend workshops, classes, or seminars that will help them improve their interpreting skills. Information about professional development opportunities will be posted in the Interpreting and Accommodation Services Office. Interpreters who learn of workshops or classes not posted should bring this information to the office to share with others. Please be aware of these continuing education opportunities and make every effort to attend.
PLEASE KEEP IN MIND THAT PARTICIPATION IN PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT IS NECESSARY FOR ADVANCEMENT ON THE PAY SCALE AT OHLONE COLLEGE .
Interpreters must be punctual. The interpreter should be on time or, preferably, a few minutes early. This is especially important on the first day of class or when substituting so you can introduce yourself to the instructor and deaf student(s). If for any reason the interpreter will be arriving late to the assignment, the office should be called immediately so the Director can inform the consumers and/or send someone to cover the class.
Should a deaf student not show up at the beginning of class, the interpreter is required to wait 5 minutes for each half hour of the scheduled class (10 minutes for a one hour class, and 15 minutes for a class that is 1 ½ hours).
After the required waiting time, if a deaf student does not show up for the class, the interpreter is to return to the Interpreting and Accommodation Services Office to report the “no show”. If a deaf student has three unexcused absences in a row, the Director will reassign the interpreter to another class.
Interpreters should meet the instructors with whom they will be working by arriving early and introducing themselves on the first day of class. (Be sure to include the deaf student if they wish to be part of this introduction.) The interpreter may want to ask if the instructor has had previous experience with deaf students and interpreters. If the instructor has not, the interpreter may choose to explain the role of an interpreter. The instructor should be informed that everything that is said will be interpreted. If the instructor has no prior experience with deaf students, the interpreter may choose to explain the benefits of using visual aids, the difficulty of interpreting material from a read aloud text, and any other ideas to improve the interpreting process.
Interpreters should ask if it is possible to get an extra copy of the text and all of the handouts associated with the class. These can assist with preparatory work to make the interpreter’s job easier. Also, the interpreter should request that the instructor give advance notice if he or she plans a field trip or plans on showing videos, films, or slides so that the interpreter can arrange for a light source if necessary.
There are times when the films are captioned and it would be practical for the instructor to request a VCR with a decoder from the Media Department.
Asking for Clarification
Sometimes it is necessary to stop the lecturer for clarification if the information is missed or if the interpreter falls behind. Remember, it is the deaf students’ right to receive all of the information from the discussion and lecture. The interpreter should be polite if he or she must interrupt the instructor. The interpreter should sign while asking the instructor a question so the deaf student is aware of what is happening.
In an interpreting situation, the interpreter never has the right to censor what is being said. Deaf and hearing people should have equal access of the same information, including language or statements that may be considered offensive. All consumers have the right to make decisions based on all given information. Interpreters should always interpret the meaning and intent of the speaker in a manner that it is best understood by the consumers involved without censoring or omitting information. The interpreter will transmit not only the classroom information/lecture content, but also whenever possible, classmates’ comments, asides, and environmental noises.
Interpreters are to view all information in an interpreting situation as confidential. Interpreters are not free to discuss the nature of the class, the student(s) names, the progress of the student(s), or any other information that is part of the interpreted communication. If there is a problem that needs attention, or if questions arise about an interpreting situation, the Interpreting and Accommodation Services Director should be contacted to discuss the matter. The Director is responsible for scheduling, skill assessment and mediation between faculty, staff, students and interpreters; thus, is privy to confidential information for the purpose of assisting the interpreter and the consumers involved if there are problems or ethical questions.
Questions from the deaf students should always be directed to the instructor. Questions from the instructor should always be directed to the deaf student. The interpreter will expressively and verbally transmit questions and never answer the questions themselves.
When interpreting a class with unfamiliar vocabulary, check with the Director for assistance. It is requested that the interpreter turn in all relevant handouts from assignments to the Director. The Interpreting and Accommodation Services Office will then be able to share the course information with others in subsequent semesters.
Team Interpreting Situations
Team Interpreting is used, whenever possible, for two reasons: a) the class or session is a lecture class longer than one hour and requires continuous interpreting, and/or b) a less experienced interpreter is placed in a class with an experienced interpreter as a mentor.
Team Interpreting provides an opportunity for both individuals to offer and receive positive feedback, vocabulary building and support. This is why the Ohlone College Interpreting and Accommodation Services use Team Interpreting instead of Relief Interpreting. When working in a team situation, the interpreters are there to provide support and rest for each other. Both interpreters should attend the full class session and be attentive to the needs of his/her team at all times. Team interpreters should meet at the beginning of the semester to discuss how they can best assist each other with the interpreting process, and periodically thereafter to see if adjustments should be made. Discuss how to best signal your team when you need assistance as well as how and when to “feed” each other. Also, agree on how and when to relieve each other (fifteen-to-twenty minute intervals are recommended).
Some interpreters are more open to feedback than others. As a professional courtesy, the interpreters involved in a team situation should consult with each other before offering extensive comments or critique. When giving responses or suggestions, it should be helpful and constructive at all times.
Requesting Break Time
When a class is longer than an hour and a half, you are encouraged to request a break. Politely explain to the instructor that your muscles can only work so long at optimum accuracy. Generally, a 20-minute break (or two 10-minute breaks) is acceptable and needed for a class longer than 1-½ hours. Remember, your student will also have a hard time concentrating for longer than that period of time as well.
Prior to final exam week, interpreters should check with instructors and students to find out if interpreting services are required for the final exam. The week before final exams, the Director will send out a memo to let the interpreters know what their schedules will be for the following week. Regardless of dismissal from the student or instructor, the interpreter is required to remain in the classroom until the student is finished with the exam.
Occasionally, interpreters find it necessary to read the material presented in the class to which they are assigned. Preparation time can be claimed on your timesheet for this. The amount that can be claimed for reading should equal the class time. For example: a one-hour class would require one hour’s worth of reading.
Interpreting and Accommodation Services has a variety of textbooks and handbooks for several subjects that can be checked out. If the book you are looking for is not in our library, contact the Director for assistance in ordering what is needed.
View the Fremont Campus Map.
- Building 5: Bookstore, Cafeteria
- Building 6: Center for Deaf Studies
- Building 7: Admissions and Records, Interpreting and Accommodation Services
- Building 19: Human Resources
- Building 20: Campus Security
- Building FP-29: Central Services (Mailroom and Duplicating)
- Hyman Hall: Library / LRC
A STAR denotes Disabled Parking.
Room numbers at Ohlone College consist of 4 numbers: the first number represents the building number, the second number represents the floor of that building, and the third and fourth numbers represent the classroom or office number.
For example: Room 7223 is located in Building 7, on the second floor, in room 23 (7223).
Because of the interpreters’ and captioners’ high visibility, they are representatives of Ohlone’s Interpreting and Accommodation Services and therefore need to be knowledgeable and able to refer inquiries to the appropriate office(s). Listed are important offices and phone numbers you should be familiar with.
- Interpreting and Accommodation Services Director
Voice/TTY (510) 659-6271
- Video Phone (510) 344-5701
- Email email@example.com
- Vice President of Student Services
Voice (510) 659-6107
- Center for Deaf Studies
Voice/TTY (510) 659-6269
- Gallaudet University Regional Center
TTY (510) 659-6050
- Campus Security
Voice/TTY (510) 659-6111
- TTY Public Telephone Locations:
- Next to the Bookstore entrance
- Front of the school at the bottom of the main stairs
- VRS phone booth located in the Cafeteria Lobby
Hourly Pay for Sign Language Interpreters
As of July 1, 2014:
- Level I - Range 41/Step 1 = $25.26 per hour
- Level II - Range 41/Step 3 = $27.78 per hour
- Level III - Range 41/Step 6 = $32.11 per hour
- Level IV - Certified Equivalent = $40.00 per hour
- NIC, CSC, CI, CT, CI/CT Certified Level V = $50.00 per hour
- NIC: Master or NIC: Advanced = $60.00/hour
Besides accruing the appropriate number of hours, passing an evaluation, and recommendation by the Director, it is recommended that all interpreters participate in a mentoring program as well as attending Professional Development Workshops before moving to the next step on the pay scale.
(Rates may change without notice.)